To Attain Food Security in the Big Four Agenda, Bring Back Bwana Chief

He wore the crown and this meant that in Ruguru Location, Mathira Constituency, Central Province, he was the government. He was Bwana Chief Karangi, in the post-independence period when Kenyans, who had been in internment villages were settling in their farms.

Bwana Chief was in all sectors, but it is mainly in agriculture where he single-handedly swept off any resistance that the Ministry of Agriculture would face in implementing concepts that were new to the citizens.

    This genre of Chief presided over a form of benevolent dictatorship that helped Kenya take its baby steps in agriculture and become food secure.

He would give a don’t-you-dare deadline of, “I don’t want to see any active bulls in this location.”

With this, even the prize winning bulls named Uhuru were castrated or sold. This cleared the way for the introduction of Artificial Insemination Services and marked the beginning of the dairy sector.

“There will be communal work on Tuesday for construction of the cattle dip.”

Behind his back there would be bickering – didn’t forced labor end with independence? But all households sent able-bodied member(s) to the site.

And when the cattle dip became operational, all livestock were taken to the dip, ensuring that the tick-borne diseases were communally controlled.

Be it making terraces on slopy land or selecting pioneer farmers for training at Wambugu Farmers Training Centre, this genre of Chief presided over a form of benevolent dictatorship that helped Kenya take its baby steps in agriculture and become food secure.

His edicts were, whenever necessary, reinforced by invoking the names of Bwana (District Officer) D.O and (District Commissioner) D.C, who were believed to be on a direct cable to the President.

The whole executive arm of the government was aware that for a newly independent country, food security was the bedrock on which other development services such as health, education, security and financial growth were based.

    Having started on such a high note, how did we lose the agriculture momentum, such that Kenya at 55 years can’t feed herself?

How do we square off that in 2018, one of the major roles of the chief – we long did away with the Bwana – is in the distribution of relief food, even in areas that were once food secure?

While I can’t put my finger on the exact period, somewhere in the 80’s, the country became complacent, possibly based on optimism that the momentum of the 70’s would continue on advisory services from the Ministry of Agriculture, without the heavy hand from the executive.

With this, farmers no longer felt obliged to take up any recommendations offered by the ministry, and communal platforms like mass roll out of new seed varieties were lost. Knock, knock who’s there? Famine.

This is the situation that I found during my brief tenure at the agriculture extension service in the 90’s.

By the time we were enacting the new constitution and devolution, the farmer was a twig carrying member of the haki yetu (our rights) brigade and could therefore protest for his right to, for example; keep feed-guzzling breeds of dairy cattle on the utopian promise that it can get 40 ltrs of milk/day/cow, even when the cows are underfed due to lack of quality animal feeds; not sell livestock at their prime only to see them wiped off by drought; and keep quails – enough.

To appease the haki yetu citizens, the government became politically correct in its communication with farmers. Instead of the dare-you edicts of the Bwana Chief, farmers are “encouraged” to plant early; and use of certified seeds and drought-resistant crops is “recommended”.

These words are euphemisms for – run your farms as you see fit. And with pleasure, farmers are doing just that! Is it a wonder that most of our research findings from organizations such as KALRO have not yet found their way into our plates?

    In Kenya, agriculture is not cool idea but a food fact.

Sticking with the twigs, the farmers – I am one – will wave them on serikali tusaidie (government help us) demonstrations for the supply of quality livestock feeds, better prices for farm produce, searching for buyers of last resort for emaciated livestock and supply of subsidized fertilizer.

True, there are problems in agriculture, especially in supply and marketing, and it is OK that farmers seek help from the government.

But the long term effects of government intervention are not felt because as soon as a problem is solved, however partial, farmers revert to haki yetu mode.

If we are to attain sustainable food security as envisioned in the Big Four agenda, the government needs to take back control of the small holder agriculture sector. A good starting point is by ending this see-sawing of haki yetu and serikali tusaidie. This can no longer be done on political goodwill but on benevolent dictatorship.

I see some raised pitchforks ready to defend our democratic principles – peace; from now onwards let’s use the term political good force instead of benevolent dictatorship.

Should we adopt political good force, Kenya will be in good company – particularly of a certain desert country which considers food security as its national security. It is the leading destination for benchmarking agriculture tours for our leaders and dairy farmers.

I wonder if they get the memo that down there farming is done by the government’s book, otherwise it is borderline of treason? Figured out the country?

    I suggest that we slow down on promoting the agribusiness/agripreneurs model and focus on making farming households food secure.

But to give credit to our government, it has successfully used political good force to reform the transport sector (matatus) and Saccos.

Also in the education sector, without promotion or encouragement, but by an order with a deadline, even the six-figure fees alternative curriculum schools painted their buses yellow just like the what’s-its-name D.E.B. school. Is this not the kind of political good force that would be worth deploying for food security?

At the risk of disinviting myself to the agriculture conferences that will spill off from the Big Four agenda – I hear there is big money and grant proposal writers are busy – I suggest that we slow down on promoting the agribusiness/agripreneurs model and focus on making farming households food secure.

By over emphasizing on agribusiness, we are making agriculture to be seen as a strictly transactional endeavor, which undervalues the food that is grown for family consumption.
But if farming households are food secure, count on them to sell any surplus produce and explore avenues of value addition.

Our current agribusiness mentality possibly accounts for greenhouses, dairy cattle sheds and other farming ventures, which though started with a lot of pomp and a lot of money, are abandoned once the agripreneurs can’t handle the challenges that come with farming.

Besides unless we are focusing on Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs), large scale agribusinesses can’t be done in our once high potential agriculture areas due to uncontrolled subdivision of land.

    President Uhuru on his final term was made for this moment – he can make sustainable food security his mission, implemented through the lowest administrative office.

In the age of mobile phones, Google, apps and big data do we need the Chief in the Big Four agenda?

The good news first: The mobile phone, with a wider reach, has made obsolete the position of village carrier, who was Bwana Chief’s PA and the dreaded village snitch – so they said.

The bad news: Some of the agriculture based M-apps (cousins to M-pesa) and the internet has a credibility problem and lacks the enforcement factor that the Bwana Chief had.

On data – unless it is broken down to bits that the farmers can connect with and apply within their situation, the spread sheets and power point presentations are best kept for conferences.

For a country where there is a thin line between policy and politics (votes), political good force in agriculture can only be led by someone with nothing to lose.

President Uhuru on his final term was made for this moment – he can make sustainable food security his mission, implemented through the lowest administrative office.

Is he not best suited to force for managed grasslands in ASALs? Demand that every farming household plant one (1) tissue culture banana? Force dairy farmers to keep cattle breeds with better feed conversion? Change the narrative that for Kenya, agriculture is not cool idea but a food fact?

And just so he knows, we will complain and resist, but if he succeeds (which he can), we will complain on why he didn’t reform agriculture on his first term.

As for the county governments which are very vote prone and without the longevity and recognition of the national government, they can handle the technical/advisory role.

Reality is that while nearly every farmer knows his chief, few know their County Executive for Agriculture.

If we get it wrong with agriculture reforms in the Big Four agenda, we might render credence to the street legend that the 5 year cost of Kenya’s donor and government funded projects, researches and conferences/seminars on agriculture could give every Kenyan about Ksh20m?! And could I get my share in the form of a tractor? I will not ask for change. Thank you.

This post is to the memory and vision of my parents Mr & Mrs Peter Munene Mari.

Baba, you were a living Google. That I could not recall the dates (and days) of the chief’s edicts, names of the D.O and D.C – does not do justice to how you narrated events with clarity and details.
Maitu, an alumni of Wambugu Farmers – if I could be half the farmer you were with the resources you had, I would be very happy.
The bench is still there and you are dearly missed.

For comments and opinions on this post, contact the blog writer:

Anne, Tel: 0725-520627

Benefits of Early Planting in ASALs

After wearing out our knees offering supplications for rains – they are finally here and then they are not.

Even with floods that have brought loss of life and property, there is a brigade of farmers that believe that the rains are not enough to warrant planting.

Because, proper rains always start kitu kama 15th of March and planting early has the risks that you could “loose” seeds! Sawa.

I am not an expert in weather predictions, and I let every farmer choose which rainfall expert they want to hitch their harvest on.

But for those of us in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) – we don’t engage in the real-rain and no-rain debate. Every drizzle is rain and we like to milk it dry with dry planting a.k.a. early planting.

For a country that has food deficit, and even in the bread basket regions of North Rift rains are no longer on the tap, one would think that the farming practices that have made Lengatia successful would be widely adopted by other farmers

For latecomers to ASALs – label me one, we try to emulate the work of pioneers such as Lengatia Farm in Naro Moru, who regardless of the advice coming from experts, they are experiential advocates of early planting in ASALs.

And for this they are famous for high yields in wheat, barley, canola and hay in climatic conditions that many consider hostile for farming.

Yes, these pioneer farms are keen on maintaining soil fertility, use of high quality seeds and control of weeds and pests.

Instead of living in the utopia of the mega dams to store run off water for irrigation – think Galana, they improve the structure of their soils so as to retain maximum water and effectively lengthen the window that the soils are moist.

They do all the above and then they plant early, to take maximum advantage of the earliest showers. Beat this.

For a country that has food deficit and even in the bread basket regions of North Rift rains are no longer on the tap, one would think that the farming practices that have made Lengatia successful would be widely adopted by other farmers. And I guess the owners would think this a very well rendered CSR albeit without the photo ops.

If Kenya is going to make an attempt at being self-sufficient in human and livestock feed – we must change the way we farm and start using practices that have been known to work at local level and early planting is one of them

But we don’t give compliments or adopt ideas that fast. At least not before we subtly tear down the farmer’s efforts by throwing the lines of they are lucky, they have money and machinery, they have huge tracks of land and when all else fails we pull the racial card.

On the money line – we will even pay for agri-tours to desert countries to go and learn how they farm! Learn, in a week of hop-scotch packed itinerary? Sorry teacher – I am out, I was a slow student.

Good people, if we can’t learn from successful farms that are in our backyards, what is the magic wand that these agri-tours are supposed to wave? Should we therefore not brand them as leisure trips?

This is not sour grapes; I am a big believer in farmers getting time off from the farm – so there is nothing wrong with the trips.

…crops that are planted early have a longer window to take advantage of the rains and soil nutrients (e.g. fertilizers), resulting to higher yield than those that are planted late

If Kenya is serious at being self-sufficient in human and livestock feed – we must change the way we farm and start using practices that have been known to work at local level and early planting is one of them.

To start with all things being constant, crops that are planted early have a longer window to take advantage of the rains and soil nutrients (e.g. fertilizers), resulting to higher yield than those that are planted late.

Secondly, farmers who plant early will more likely have prepared their land well and at a lower cost, than those who do a speed dash during rains.

As much as I would want to concede to the anti-early planting brigade that there is a potential of incurring loses should the rains anyway fail, this argument along with the line of further research, conferences and policy papers would lock us up in the state of inertia – a luxury that a hungry nation does not have

Also add on the fact that there is less damage to the soils when dry planting. A rider to this – the use and efficiency of mechanical implements in the farm is reduced or totally eliminated with rains.

Early planters are also more likely to plant their preferred seeds and have enough time to accommodate any shortage of inputs.

Last but not least, crops that are planted early have better tolerance (resistance) to weeds and pests and consequently they have better yields.

As much as I would want to concede to the anti-early planting brigade that there is a potential of incurring loses should the rains anyway fail, this argument along the line of further research, conferences and policy papers would lock us up in the state of inertia – a luxury that a hungry nation does not have.

For anyone who may still be waiting for the “right” date to plant – consider this:

  • The African culture, which we often take refuge in, put lot of premium on early planting.
  • During harvesting, communities deliberately left seeds in the ground which provided the early crop that bridged the food deficit gap before the main harvest. To the Kikuyus – this life saving harvest was (and still is) maitika.

    If it worked then, how much more can it work if we boost it up with high yielding seeds and the use of fertilizers?

  • Biologically, nature in self preservation always disperses her seeds way before the rains. This is how weeds are dispersed and no wonder they germinate with the first rains – as we debate if the rains are enough for planting crops.
  • To the Good Book – the parable of the sower should make any doubting Thomas change their planting ways. Your seeds have to be on good soils – which you only get if you took time (early) to prepare the land and you will be rewarded multiple times of what you have sown.
  • Finally back to the leisure trips, the best time to schedule one is when you have done planting early. Talking of which my fodder seeds were down in late Feb and since the farm is inaccessible due to floods, any trip ideas are welcome.
  • Make Kenya food secure, plant early.

    For comments and opinions on this post, contact the blog writer:

    Anne, Tel: 0725-520627

    Ending the Year on a Hay Note

    Five years ago when I took up the position of starting Lukuai Hay Farm from scratch, I had my job spelled out – produce hay and deliver a good ROI to my employer.

    This was presented in such a rosy way that the obvious perils and costs of farming were being glossed over from the uninformed position that hay farming is easy.

    Thankfully, I knew better and took the offer fully aware that farming, especially in ASALs (Arid and Semi-Arid Areas), is not for the faint-hearted and a good business plan may not save you. It is sweat and tears – yes, you will have some celebratory periods but you must have a reservoir from which you draw your energy to see you through the tough times.

    The one message that has been constant from dairy farmers is that the quality of hay in Kenya is poor.

    Besides a dependable network of people that I surround myself with, my go-to reservoir comes from my past experience in agriculture extension and as a teacher for the same subject, which has made me broaden my scope to interrogate the production and consumption of hay in Kenya from the customers’ (dairy/livestock farmers’) point of view.

    The one message that has been constant from dairy farmers is that the quality of hay in Kenya is poor. To those who say that farmers are as calm as lambs, they surely have not heard any ventilating about bad hay.

    I have had this message voiced on training sessions I have conducted for dairy groups at the farm and it was amplified during the 1st National Fodder Conference in Nakuru.

    Let’s get this out, there are hay farmers who are doing a commendable job on quality of hay and bale sizes, but they are way outnumbered by the dodgy, giving the whole business a stench.

    Tracing the origin of deteriorating hay standards in Kenya

    The day we negated from the accepted definition of hay as a grass or legume that is purposely grown for conservation, and accepted that baling machines validate hay, we lost the plot on hay quality.

    The baling machine is at its infancy – the current model was first manufactured in 1936 – but the process of hay production is as old as the domestication of livestock animals.

    Past civilizations used hand tools, e.g. the scythe, hay forks and twines, to conserve fodder.  A baling machine is a combination of these ancient hand tools, and while it makes the process faster and more efficient, it is not the ‘hay maker’.

    On to the words ‘purposely grown’. Hay needs to be free from contaminants (pre and post-harvest), harvested at the right time, properly cured, then baled or stacked and delivered to the farmer. There are too many details on quality to go into this piece, but I hope the message is clear.

    The ‘conservation’ part assumes that nutrients are locked in to the grass or legume, which is what rounds up quality hay.

    Therefore any plant material, e.g. straws from cereal plants and the road-side whatever, regardless of the fact that it has passed through a baling machine, cannot pass the test as hay, since it is not purposely grown and conserved.

    Certainly this is an egg-chicken argument of whether it is quality hay that should come first or a knowledgeable farmer.

    The crisis in the Kenyan dairy sector is that these alternative or parallel lines of hay markets were given room to become fully-fledged businesses and any attempt to break them up will be met with resistance.

    The situation is not helped by the fact that dairy farmers were given or developed strategies, never mind how ill-advised they are, on how to cope with the poor quality hay.

    To start with there is a perception that hay ni ya kushikilia tumbo (is for holding the stomach). Farmers don’t do themselves a favor when they are seen to treat hay as filler and not as premium feed.

    Certainly this is an egg-chicken argument of whether it is quality hay that should come first or a knowledgeable farmer. Whichever, it is counterproductive when the end user of a good has only a transactional connection (how much does it cost?) with the good, because he then opens himself up to manipulation.

    Feed constitutes 60-70% of the cost of dairy herds and so it is worth paying attention to its source.

    I have seen this when I train dairy executives and farmers on hay quality – there is a perception that the field day is a price comparison trip. In no way am I underestimating the price factor in making purchasing decisions, but farmers have to show an interest in what is in the hay bale.

    Surprisingly, many farmers (as well as executives) pride themselves with the number of learning trips they have made to renowned dairy farms, both locally and abroad, to learn about management. While this is commendable, rarely do I find any who have visited a hay/fodder farm to learn about what is in the feed that they give their cows.

    Sending the memo – feed constitutes 60-70% of the cost of dairy herds and so it is worth paying attention to its source.

    Use of additives

    By nature, farmers are innovative and many times during farmers training sessions, I have been made privy to some ingenious ways of reversing poor quality hay to good hay. This involves the addition of concoctions that apparently extract maximum nutrients from any type of hay.

    I have always countered that with: “What if there were no nutrients to start with?”

    With hay, as well as with any other animal feeds, the NINO rule – Nutrients In Nutrients Out rule – applies.

    The danger with the concoctions theory is that they come highly recommended by experts, especially the anonymous jamaa mwingine (another guy) and Uncle Google. From then on, it is down-hill on the hay quality slope.

    With hay, as well as with any other animal feeds, the NINO rule – Nutrients In Nutrients Out rule – applies.  While the efficacy of these additives is questionable, they undoubtedly add to the cost of production. What we must not lose sight of is that their residues are found in the final product, i.e. in the milk we drink.

    There are many dairy experts who are evangelists on quality hay and I am thankful to the many that mentor me. On their behalf may I let the concoctions-experts know that they are making the industry look complicit in the poor quality hay debate.

    The Chaff Cutter

    A sign that a dairy farmer is in ‘agri-business’ is the acquisition of chaff cutter. Just as the hay baler is misused to validate hay, there is barn knowledge that a chaff cutter can sanitize poor quality hay.

    Pray, this is a mechanical panga that only changes the physical aspect of fodder, making it palatable and reducing selectivity and waste, but does not in any way improve the quality of the hay.

    If hay is of good quality, cows just like any other farm animal such as horses, would chew it to the last blade without a need of chopping it up.

    The full benefits of a chaff cutter are derived when it is matched with quality fodder. Otherwise every crank it makes with poor quality hay may only be helping to increase the electricity bill.

    So what’s the way forward on hay quality?

    This question was the trigger to my starting this blog in 2016, so I will self-plagiarize with my post of 16/5/16 – in which I opined that for hay quality to improve, the Kenya dairy sector needs to copy the Kenya horticulture sector.

    With one and a half years of hind sight, my position has not changed. So I will not cherry pick – see the unabridged blog post:

    Please read the above post and as always, contribute to the hay quality debate by sending your comments and opinions.

    Contact the blog writer, Anne Munene
    Manager Lukuai Hay Farm, Laikipia
    Tel: 0725-520627

    Healthy Soils: Key to Unlocking the Grass Potential of ASALs

    We listen to Presidential speeches with bias and as Kenya’s President Uhuru was inaugurated for his second and final term on Nov 26th, those of us in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs), were gratified when President painted the broad picture on how his government will go about ensuring that Kenya can get out of the drought cycles through  a re-engineered agricultural policy.

    Without getting caught up into the semantics of the word “re-engineering”, we can assume that it means his government will do things differently than it has done in the last 5 years in the ASALs.

    rae-bernard-2014.jpgRAE Bernard 2017
    Bernad Lenariach: Unmanaged Vs Managed Grass Farm 

    As the President assembles the teams that will help him to fulfill his legacy in ASALs, citizens need to give their input and commend individuals such as Bernard Lenariach of Lomayana Village, Baringo South, who have shown that pastoralism and grass farming are not mutually exclusive and that the drought jinx in ASALs can be broken.

    Inputting in policy discussion in ASALs, is one way that Kenyans can extend their civic duty beyond the polling booth.

    1. Why should ASALs matter on national level?

    80% of Kenya’s land mass is in ASALs (Kirbride and Grahn 2008:8) while the remaining 20% is in the once high potential agricultural areas that are now on the food deficit zone due to population pressure.

    Because of the small land sizes, farmers in the high potential areas are limited in deploying mechanization, scaling-up operations and in the case of the dairy sector – while they have access to superior animal genetics, management skills and a ready market for milk, they don’t have sufficient animal fodder.

    Dairy Cow

    Their main supply of fodder in form of hay comes from ASALs – so developing ASALs has a big national implication especially in the dairy sector.


    On regional level land utilization in ASALs is currently based on a numerical livestock numbers pastoralism, whose expansion depends on an ever increasing acreage of land, which is not viable. This set up is contrary to successful models of livestock management which acknowledges that land is a “finite” factor of production and they aim to maximize grass value per acre of land.

    In the re-engineered agriculture era, we therefore need to change the narrative of ASALs as a region of livestock production and view it as a region where grass can be purposefully grown as a “crop”, the Bernad Lenariach’s way.

    2. Shift focus from rain to soils

    The President referred to the … “vagaries of weather that hold us hostage”

    It is safe to assume that by “weather” the President was referring to rain, whose amount and distribution we can’t control.

    However even in seasons when there is enough rainfall, ASALs do not realize their full grass potential per acre because the soils are unhealthy.

    Besides being a structure for anchoring the grass, healthy grass soils provide nutrients and a reservoir effect that sustains the grass well past the rainy season.

    Figuratively, soils can either be a sponge that retains water or a hard roof that accelerates water runoff.

    While there are many reasons why the state of the soils can be unhealthy, in ASALs the expansive land gives an infinite perception allowing practices such as overgrazing and the subsequent unavoidable soil erosion accelerate, to a point that the soils  can’t absorb water.

    It is important to note that the effects of unhealthy soils are self-perpetuating and unless urgent intervention is done, desertification kicks in resulting in further shrinking of grazing lands.

    For unhealthy soils to heal they need a “sick-off” period, whereby livestock are intentionally kept off the land and then management practices such as minimum tillage, replenishing of nutrients by adding manure and reseeding to increase grass density are done.

    3. Role of the ASALs’ residents in the re-engineered agriculture

    Kenya ASALs have had many agriculture related projects funded by the Government, development agents and NGOs – many of these projects have not survived past the pomp of the launching.

    In comparison the RAE (Rehabilitation of Arid Environments) Charitable Trust in Baringo, of which Bernad is a member, provides technical advice on soil management, grass seeds and farm machinery at a fee.

    The fee aspect gives the project goodwill and ownership, factors which are essential for the success of any project but are unfortunately lacking in the Government and donor projects.

    Also worth noting in Baringo, an area where formal land adjudication has not yet been done, for the purpose of rolling out the grass as a crop project,  the community arbitrated land ownership enabling households to “settle” and commit their resources to improve grass on their own portions of land.

    This effectively removed the communal ownership of grasslands, which are often mired in disputes.

    Another big win for the RAE project is proof that the cheapest and most effective way of controlling the dreaded Mathenge weed (Prosopis juliflora), is to switch to manage grasslands. Farms such as Bernad’s (see picture ) are free from Mathenge while open fields are fully forested with the weed.

    Despite challenges, the RAE project Baringo have demonstrated that people in ASALs can take a soil/grass improvement project, own it and with pride literally run with it – natural in Baringo!

    4. Role of national and county governments

    The national and county governments should be facilitators providing technical advice that recognizes the unique challenges in ASALs. They should also provide credible data that gives benchmarks against which grass yields per acre can be measured.

    Building of infrastructure such as gabions for reclaiming eroded gullies and establishing of water pans for retaining excess run off water would also be their mandate, but with clear understanding that these can’t compensate for the lack of healthy soils – which is the responsibility of the individual farmers.

    Finally, enforcing the rule of law that ensures managed grass farms are considered as  private property and are protected, is the mandate of the twin governments.

    For whatever reason you visit Baringo in this festive season – drop in  to Bernad’s farm and the RAE projects, to see that the drought-free Kenya that we desire, is truly within our hands.

    Happy holidays.

    For comments and opinions on this post, contact the blog author:

    Anne, Tel: 0725-520627

    To the Laikipia Governor: Improving Livelihoods Through Managed Grasslands

    Governor of Laikipia, Ndiritu Muriithi, it is a month since you were sworn in and I believe that your in-tray is overflowing with policy challenges that come in via emails, snail mail, files that have been retrieved from archives and not forgetting personal from your constituents, who with or without appointments, insist on seeing you life-life.

    I doubt that there is anyone or any event that is requiring your attention for pleasantries – if ever there was a time for this, it ended on Aug 7. Governor, you are now in the ‘hard choices’ zone. Oh, this is a term I have borrowed from a book that I’m reading, Hard Choices by Hillary Rodham Clinton, her memoir as the Secretary of State.

    In her opinion, America’s agenda (then) was best served by the three legged stool of D’s i.e. Development, Diplomacy and Defense. The hard choices came in balancing and being cognizant of the fact that policies that lean towards development and diplomacy are more likely to be socially acceptable, have a long term effect and are cheaper to execute than the defense option. The 3 D’s and their application are not only true for USA but for any country/county where the aim of those who govern, in elected or appointed posts, is to improve its citizens life.

    With this out of the way, Sasa tutoke USA and come back to Laikipia, Kenya – not hard for you as from your impressive bio on Wikipedia, you came back home after studying in the USA. Broadly speaking, in Laikipia you have 3 main constituents: the town dwellers, arable farmers and pastoral communities in the ASALs (Arid and Semi-Arid Lands).

    Mr. Governor, I wish to give you and your team my unsolicited take on development in the Laikipia ASALs, and I trust there will be others who will offer their views on the other D’s ref Laikipia. I write this without the benefit of seeing your agenda for Laikipia but I want to believe that improving the livelihoods of the ASALs residents is at the core of your administration policy.

    Managed grasslands

    Managed grasslands in ASALs: Lukuai Farm in 2011 vs 2015

    After 4 years of managing a commercial hay farm in Laikipia North, I am of the opinion that the only way to bring tangible development and improve livelihoods in Laikipia’s ASALs is to agronomically manage grasslands. This means using the best and most appropriate – scientific, cultural or biological practices to grow and utilize your grasses as crops, not as nyasi. By so doing you will enable your constituents to bring their livestock production skills to the level of other leading livestock producing economies, such as Botswana.

    Why should your county (as well as the country) switch to managed grasslands in ASALs?

    1) In ASALs, social development e.g. education, nutrition, health, housing, employment, lifting households out of poverty, etc., is based on livestock production, which is a ‘grass factor’ and can only be guaranteed and secured on managed grasslands, regardless of the land tenure.

    2) The market imperative: We are not just playing in the local livestock markets, but also in the regional and international markets, which favor those who can produce quality livestock cheaper than their competitors.

    3) Climate change and population pressure in the ASALs are diminishing the areas that were once designated as livestock zones.

    4) Mobility of livestock feeds has changed the game of where livestock production takes place – zero grazing and cattle fattening do not necessarily have to be at ground zero of feed source. Their location can be in areas closer to the markets, where technical support is readily available or security is guaranteed.

    Compared to other counties, you are starting off with a relatively big area of 9,462 km2 (for Gov. Sonko, Nairobi County is only 696 km2). However, in agriculture (livestock production), land by and of itself is not a resource until it has a productive value, which in Laikipia’s ASALs’ case equates to grass value.

    Also in the livestock world, the measure of grass value has moved on from the numerical livestock head count in an area, to the scientific measure of weight gain per animal over time. The latter is based on, among other variables, the quantity and quality of grasses fed to the livestock either as standing fodder, cut-and-carry fodder or as conserved fodder e.g. hay or silage.

    Where do you start?

    Land reclamation

    From my limited travel in Laikipia’s ASALs, there are large tracts of land that are heavily overgrazed, degraded and/or colonized by invasive species e.g. cactus. These are grasslands that are in the stage of going, going and forever gone into a desert. Only urgent hands-on land reclamation championed by the county’s top leadership, can reverse this trend.

    Fortunately there is a precedent of this type of leadership – in the 80’s the kuzuia mmomonyoko wa udongo (control of soil erosion) movement (or policy), was a daily national news affair. Laikipia needs a revival of this movement, and don’t forget the songs and dance that went with it.

    Soil Conservation

    Retired President Moi leading the way on soil conservation Source: SDE

    Reseeding the grasslands

    This is a twin to reclamation, as ASALs’ grasslands are in urgent need of reseeding, so as to increase their productivity and the feeding value. Use of local perennial grasses e.g. Red Oat and African Fox Tail – which do well even with limited rains, will possibly be better than using exotic grasses e.g. Rhodes Grass.

    Local knowledge

    The pastoral community in the ASALs has a lot of cultural livestock management experience, as well as resilience, which can be leverage as the community transits to improved livestock production under managed grasslands. This is a big positive that you need to ride on.

    Use of manure

    Manure, hay

    Offloading manure at Lukuai Farm

    Governor, this is your county’s gold and if a % was intentionally used to maintain soil fertility in grasslands, the livestock returns from increased grass value would be much higher than the price/truck that is paid for manure at the manyattas (homestead).  By no way am I advocating that you should regulate the manure industry, but soil fertility is a critical factor in grass yields and nowhere is this more apparent than in ASALs.

    Let me plug this – at Lukuai Hay Farm, we encourage that old barter trade whereby we take manure as payment for hay. This is a win-win for us and for our livestock-keeping customers.

    Data on managed grasslands

    What is the grass value from a well managed 1 acre in Laikipia’s ASALs?
    What is the weight gain per cow per week in ASALs?

    The above questions (and others related to grass production) will best be answered by data which needs to be current, credible and should be readily available for your administrative use, as well as for your constituents who want to have a go at managed grasslands.

    A tip on grassland data: Other than data from research institutions, there is a lot data that is in private hands. People are willing to share data, if assured there is a greater common good that will be gained.

    Bench-marking foreign trips field trips

    Leadership is about learning and you get good at it if you learn from the best. Possibly this is the basis on which elected officials (countrywide) spent a great part of 2013 on a whirlwind of bench-marking trips abroad. Well, until the foreign embassies said: “Stop this charade!” I am not implying that you are drawing up an itinerary for a bench-marking tour abroad, but Governor anything you and your team would wish to learn about managed grasslands is right here in Kenya’s ASALs.

    Start with the work done by the local office of NDMA (National Drought Management Authority). Tap the Baringo Governor and get an invite to see work done by the RAE Trust (Rehabilitation of Arid Environments). Visit individual farms, as Team IGAD/ICPALD did for experiential learning at Lukuai Farm. Grant it these field trips are not glamorous, but your team gets practical knowledge that is adaptable to the area. With appropriate foot wear, kofia (hat) and drinking water – you are ready for the lesson.

    Seed dispersal, hay farming

    Team IGAD/ICPALD reseeding grassland at Lukuai Farm

    Branding/Marketing of conserved fodder (hay)

    While any surplus conserved fodder (hay) from Laikipia’s ASALs has a ready market in the neighboring counties of Nyeri, Muranga, Kiambu, Nairobi and Meru, marketing it can be difficult. These counties have a preference for exotic grasses, such as Rhodes Grass, which are not well-adapted to ASALs. What measures will your government take to market the hay from Laikipia’s indigenous grasses, such as Themeda triandra (Red Oat Grass), so that they can be known as equally good grasses and not as hay of last resort?

    A tip: You have cattle ranches in Laikipia that are renowned for quality herds, is it possible to enlist some as your grass brand ambassadors?

    Build networks

    How are the other Governors in the ASALs counties, e.g. Kajiado handling the grass value issue? How about the Women Reps? Since women’s issues –  such as income generating projects, table banking, girls’ education and reproductive health – can all be linked to grass value, your Women Reps should be involved in advocating for managed grasslands. The same goes for the MPs and MCAs – while lobbying for physical infrastructure and delivery of services is in order, the satisfaction that your constituents will derive from any service will be by a large measure determined by the welfare of their livestock which is based  grass value.

    Governor, whichever way you choose to write your legacy, I hope that you and your team will consider managed grasslands as the right step to improve the livelihoods of the people in ASALs. By doing so, all the other things that you envision for Laikipia, such as peace and security, will be easier to achieve.

    Good luck.

    Share with us your thoughts and opinions on To the Laikipia Governor: Improving Livelihoods Through Managed Grasslands by clicking the comment link.

    Contact the blog author, Anne
    Tel: 0725-520627

    Hosting IGAD/ICPALD at Lukuai Farm


    Lukuai Hay Farm 2012 and 2016

    When I took on the job of managing Lukuai Hay Farm, my job description was clear: From this overgrazed, acacia habitated ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid Land), give us a postcard hay farm as found in Njoro or Nakuru.  In hindsight, I am glad that the job sounded so rosy and easy, because if I had foreseen the challenges I would encounter in managing a hay farm in an ASAL, I might have reacted differently to the job offer.

    Had I turned down this job, I would have lost a wonderful opportunity to meet many livestock farmers, hay traders, leaders in the livestock sector, horse owners, camel owners and of course the occasional conman. These people have seen it all – abundance of pasture, devastating drought and everything in between. They are resilient and I have drawn lessons and strength from them. To all of them – asanteni sana.

    Some visitors stand out because of their mission. In this blog I would like to highlight the 11th April 2017 field visit by IGAD’s Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) to Lukuai Farm.

    Way back in March, when Mr.Osman Mohammed Babikir from ICPALD, Nairobi contacted me for the arrangement of this field trip, I had misgivings about what role Lukuai Farm would play with IGAD/ICPALD, which is a renowned regional body with members from Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. In these countries, pastoral livestock keeping is the major economic activity and drought cycles with the subsequent animal and human suffering are common.


    The ICPALD team at Lukuai Farm

    In the opinion of Mr. Osman, Lukuai Farm – which is still a work in progress was an ideal place for a group of 18 from ICPALD to learn what can be done to reclaim overgrazed ASALs and ensure that they play a role in animal food security and therefore minimize movement of people and animals. This would enhance peace among pastoralists communities and bring about development and regional security.

    He impressed on me that since ICPALD is involved in policy development in ASALs, field trips to the private sector like Lukuai Farm are a good way to touch base with the activities and challenges on the ground so as to take in the best working practices that can be replicated or scaled-up in other areas. At the same time they (ICPALD) give the private sector invaluable technical knowledge and networks that can go a long way in ensuring that projects are successful.

    Hosting a small group of policy makers in the farm, who were experts in their countries, meant that a lot was covered, questions were asked and practical solutions provided.

    The Lukuai experience

    During the field trip, Lukuai Farm demonstrated the following to the ICPALD team:

    • Use of minimum tillage:
      This is our preferred way of land preparation instead of using the conventional system of ploughing and harrowing.  This means that fragile overgrazed soils are least exposed to erosion and farm operation costs are drastically reduced. For small scale farmers minimum tillage can be done with simple tools like a rake or fork jembe.
    • Over seeding indigenous grasses with Rhodes Grass:
      As Rhodes Grass is the preferred hay brand in the Kenyan market, Lukuai Farm has adopted the practice of liberally broadcasting its seeds over the indigenous grasses and letting it colonize them. This helps to improve the quality and quantity of the hay and it has a quick turnaround.The team had an experiential session where we showed them how to broadcast seeds on newly cut grassland – and they were quick learners, as can be seen in this picture.

    Team ICPLAD broadcasting grass seeds at Lukuai Farm

    • Seed harvesting:
      The availability of quality Rhodes Grass seeds at affordable prices can be a big challenge to commercial grass farmers. At Lukuai Farm, the solution has been to harvest our own seeds from the portion of land that we had originally planted with certified seeds from Kenya Seed Company.

    Rhodes Grass from Lukuai Farm

    • Barter trade with manure:
      Who would have thought that the centuries old trade of bartering goods would have space with livestock policy makers in 21st century?  Well, team ICPALD thought very highly of Lukuai Farm’s hay-for-manure program with the pastoralist community. It is a win-win in which we keep our soils fertile by using quality organic manure from the pastoralists and in exchange they get quality hay from, grown with “their own” the manure.
    • Hay marketing:
      Our marketing strategy aims at cutting down the supply chain and moving our hay from the baler directly to the farmer. This is because hay storage is not only expensive but has associated risks. We achieve this by being proactive in marketing, especially by holding field days where we sensitize our customers about the quality of our hay.

    Donkey Delivery

    Lessons from the ICPLAD Team

    From further discussions with the team, we gathered the following ideas:

    • Grasses are crops, not grass:
      The group’s opinion was that if there will ever be a permanent solution to the livestock feed crisis in the region, production of grasses has to be given the same attention and priority as is given to food crops such as maize and wheat. The era of waiting for “God’s grass” is and should be over if we are going to have a vibrant livestock based economy.
    • Water harvesting:
      The Ethiopian members had very good input on water harvesting and using it for fodder growing. If dams are built in strategic locations to harvest run off water, it can later be used to grow hay and fodder crops by irrigation in areas that would otherwise not be considered potential for farming. Combining water harvesting and the use of manure would be a game changer in the availability of fodder in ASALs. The underlying policy should be to encourage the pastoralist communities to use hay grown under irrigation for fattening animals on site rather than selling the hay up country.
      While this idea may look far-fetched and would definitely have challenges in starting up, if successful, it would have a lot of positive spill effects such as land reclamation, improved quality of livestock which would be leverage when negotiating prices, easier access to veterinary services and settling down of communities – which has the added social benefits of improved education, health and housing.
    • Extension services:
      One of the badges I wear with pride is that back in the days, I worked in the extension services of the Ministry of Agriculture in Kenya. Tables have turned and now being a farmer, I feel I could do with input from the extension workers. The grouped echoed the need of availing extensions services mainly to farmers in ASALs. A question to the Kenyan team was:  Are extension services devolved or are they with the central government? Whoever has this portfolio: we (the farmers in ASALs) don’t hear you and we need your help.
    • Research:
      The work KARLO and KEPHIS are doing was mentioned, particularly in new grass species that have high nutritional value and are drought resistant.  As grass producers, we look forward to hearing how research and extension services are linking up in the dissemination of crucial farming information.
    • Livestock Marketing:
      Mzee Dubat Ali Amey, National Chairman of the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, was a member of the ICPALD group and he brought in the “money” factor in the pastoralists /livestock equation. Vocal and articulate, he heads an organization that is spearheading change in the livestock market by giving pastoralists in ASALs a say in how, when and where their animals are sold.  For him and his organization, commercial grass/hay production in ASALs is the way to go if the full benefit of livestock keeping is to be achieved.

    Overall, this was a very rewarding day for me as I had access to the livestock policy shapers in the region. With thought leaders like the ICPLAD team there is hope that ASALs can take their rightful place as drivers of the livestock economy in the region.

    As for private sector fodder producers, we need to be engaged not only with farmers but also with governments, researchers and policy makers – because if we are not at the table when decisions in the livestock sector are made, we will be on the menu.

    Share with us your thoughts and opinions on IGAD/ICPALD’s visit to Lukuai Farm by clicking the comment link.

    Contact the blog author, Anne
    Tel: 0725-520627

    Link Between Soil Fertility and Hay Yields

    Agriculture evolved and continues to evolve on the basis of man deliberately modifying nature to feed and economically sustain himself.

    Modification of nature started with such benign acts such as planting seeds instead of waiting for natural seed dispersal and use of irrigation instead of relying on rain fed farming.

    Against an increasing human population and diminishing natural resources, science has stepped in to advance modifications of nature with examples such as plant  breeding instead of waiting for the Darwinian natural selection – which would eventually happen, only that it would take a  very long time.

    Other easy to identify modifications of nature are the use of green houses, intensive livestock feeding e.g. zero-grazing.

    However, modification of nature without appropriate counter balances and safe guards can be a limiting factor in the advancement of agriculture.  For example, while zero-grazing allows farmers to keep more animals per unit of area of land, the farmer must provide safeguards such as appropriate feeding, health management and safe environment for the venture to be economically viable.

    Fodder production especially the cut and carry system – and hay production falls in this category, is an extreme modified way of feeding animals which distorts the natural relationship between free roaming herbivorous animals and grass.

    In this symbiotic relationship as animals graze they pay  hapo  hapo with dung, which is rich  in nutrients that maintains the soil fertility.

    That is not all, as  animals  trample on the ground they aerate the top soil, preventing capping and giving a  fresh tilth on which seeds can germinate and stolons (runners) latch on giving a fresh growth of grass season after season.

    As long as there is no overstocking this situation is a win-win-win:  for the grass, for the animals and the whole ecosystem because every other organism thrives when there is mutual harmony.

    In hay production the critical batter trade give-me-grass-I –give-you-dung is lost.  It is therefore important that hay farmers take conscious effort to restore soil fertility by using manure or fertilizers, otherwise hay yields and quality can decrease significantly due to nutrient deficiencies in the soil.

    This leads us to the question: Why are hay farmers reluctant to use manures/fertilizers on grass farms?

    Upfront, I don’t have data on hay management in Kenya  and my views are informed interactions with small scale farmers who produce hay for own use and commercial farmers producing hay mainly for sale.

    The small scale farmer.

    With some of these farmers its reflex; you cut grass, you put manure and a lot of it.

    The results are grass that is fast growing even under insufficient rains.  Baling contractors love to work for the manure using small scale farmer – they know that on bales per acre the small scale farmer way out performs the commercial producers.

    The commercial hay producers.

    Regrettably this is the group in which you will find a high % of farmers who are not keen to commit money and effort to improve soil fertility.  Some of the main reasons that the farmers I have interacted with give for this reluctance are:

    • Use of “idle land”.

      I’ve lost count on the number of times that “idle land” is the opening line of hay production proposals that I have listened to.   This mindset gives room to complacence with whatever yield one gets, since prior to the hay farming, the land was idle.  This line of thinking believes that the only costs in hay production are the baling costs.However availability of land only solves the fixed asset part of the farming equation. It is the variable factors such as maintaining soil fertility that change idle land to productive land and this is what gives you good hay yields.

    • Hay production is an easy side hustle.

      Pray that you don’t meet a multi-tasking, hay producer who is armed with data on productions, prices and  potential hay buyers already queuing at his farm.What is crucially missing in his rosy data is the costs for inputs for improving soil fertility – but to him this is a small detail – he is already looking at his bank balance. Oh, how I wish.

      In my opinion what makes hay production a bad choice for a side hustle is that you can neglect critical management practices e.g. putting manure, without immediate fatal consequences.  Since the decrease in yield is gradual, it gives room for the scapegoating e.g. blaming the insufficient rains or the baling contractor who baled “big” bales.
      You can’t compare this with the consequences of neglect or bad management decision on any livestock based side hustle.  They are quick, fatal and your pocket will take a hit.

    • Lack of hay production data.

      If the consumer is king in an economy, then data is deity and this deity is the needle that is extremely difficult to find in a hay production stack.Without credible data we end up dealing with anecdote figures that get bigger and better the further one moves away from the farm. (Remember the multi-tasking side hustler?)  For lack of another word, I am sometimes inclined to shout: Hallo this sounds like a scam.

      With data we would be able to empirically compare yields based on tons /acre instead of using gross yields based on bales. This would give a big wake up call to commercial hay farmers who are averse to using manures/fertilizers, that they are out performed by the manure using small scale farmers.

      My go-to source for hay production data is the hay baling contractors that I am acquitted with.  Grant it that they have reservations about how much they reveal, but without exception they like baling for the manure using small scale hay farmer whom they also link with their “top” customers for hay.

    The growth of the dairy industry in Kenya will depend on how reliably and cheaply we can produce high quality hay (as well as other fodder crops).  Using manure or fertilizers is an outright winner for both the dairy farmer and also for the commercial hay producer.

    Keep on this blog for a follow up of which way to go: Organic manure or fertilizers.

    For comments and questions please email

    End Of Hay Baling Season: Lessons Learnt

    Between reasons and excuses, I don’t know which I should use to explain, mainly to myself, why I have not posted in the hay blog since May ’16.  It is not for lack of material, especially gems of feedback from dairy farmers, horse owners, prospective commercial hay producers and experts in dairy, whom I have been privileged to host at the farm.

    So one word for my-not-so good act, Aibu and from you I hope I get a Sawa.

    Now back to the farm. We are close to the end our baling season and what a time we have had; with challenges that could fill a barn and lessons from sources that we didn’t expect. On a very personal level I have had tremendous support from the Lukuai Farm staff and neighbours, for which I am truly grateful.

    In this post I mainly want to address the challenges in hay production especially at a time when there is a new hype that pesa iko kwa hay.  Ok, that if you have some idle land and plant “hay”,  this will be better than betting.  You will get rich, and very fast while we are at it, with the best part being that you don’t have to sweat it out, it is easy money.


    Hay Baling – Lukuai Farm

    Aaah, I guess I stood on the wrong side of this mythical generous wind that blows money into hay producers, while still allowing them to live the easy life of lounging about.

    Sorry to break the hay riches bubble, but commercial hay production is hard work, with start-up costs which can be draining and like all business ventures it has its risks.

    While there are many “consultants” who are giving very rosy financial figures about hay earnings, it is important that prospective hay producers get realistic ground information to enable them to make informed decisions on if they should go into hay production.

    Things to consider:

    Region / Zone

    In business they say location is key, and so it is in hay production – this determines the amount of rain you receive and consequently the species of grass or legume (e.g. Lucern) that you can grow.

    Particularly for farms that are in ASALs (Arid and Semi-arid Lands), such as Lukuai Farm, you will not have the luxury of rain like farmers have in the Rift Valley, therefore management decisions must be geared towards keeping your soils fertile coupled with water conservation, so as to get the maximum yield even under low rainfall.

    What is the condition of the land you are starting from?

    Have you fenced?  You would consider this a rhetoric question especially to those with non-occupied farms: you need to fence, and with a good fence that can keep off small livestock e.g. sheep.

    Don’t try to sugarcoat it with the excuse of: “Oh, there are no people around my area.” (Huko ni wapi? )  You need to fence if your intention is to become a commercial hay producer.

    Is it virgin land?  If yes, this is a big advantage because the soil fertility may be high (assuming the land is not eroded), but it can also be a disadvantage if you have to factor in the cost of opening land by uprooting tree stumps etc.  This is expensive, especially if the native bush is of the stubborn acacia family. I should know this as Lukuai Farm was (and part of it still is) inhabited by acacias.  See before and after photos.


    Lukuai Farm -2011 vs Lukuai Farm – 2016

    If land has previously been cultivated, you owe the previous occupiers a big cup of tea as they have saved you a huge expense and gained you valuable time.

    Choice of Grass

    Rhodes Grass hay remains the favourite species for dairy farmers and many commercial hay producers prefer to grow it because it is easily recognisable as the main hay brand. However, other grasses, e.g. Timothy, Star, Red Oat and Kikuyu Grass, are equally good and with good management can deliver as good returns.

    seedsSource of Seeds

    This can’t be over emphasized: know the source of your seeds and be careful that you don’t introduce undesirable plant species in your farm by sourcing seeds from unreliable vendors.

    Method of planting

    Depending on your location and the condition of the land, you could decide to establish a pure stand of grass, e.g. Rhodes Grass, or you could use minimum tillage and over seeding of Rhodes Grass on indigenous grasses.  The latter is especially useful in areas that are rainfall-challenged.


    Hay baling is 100% machine dependent, and it doesn’t come cheap, whether one outsources baling or uses their own machines.

    The quality of hay depends, among other factors, on the stage of its harvesting.  Once the right leaf:stem ratio stage has been attained (the early flowering/boot stage), the quality starts to decline with every day that the grass remains uncut.

    So if you outsource baling, be on speed dial with your baling contractor.  And if your acreage demands that you be self-sufficient in machinery  – however long it takes – aim to get your own set(s) of baling machines.


    Lukuai Hay Farm – offloading the new baler


    Lukuai Farm Hay Barn


    One of the biggest stretch of money-in-the-hay hype is that there are ready buyers, who will buy all your hay straight off the field and you don’t need to store it.  Call them brokers or traders, they will buy your hay (though not always) but because they know you don’t have a barn, you are totally disadvantaged in negotiating the price.

    The reality is that hay is perishable, especially when exposed to rain, so if you don’t have a barn, you either sell it at whatever price or keep watching the skies.


    Why, why would you put effort to produce a crop and make no effort whatsoever in marketing? All too often I meet (or I am contacted by) hay producers, who are seeking help in marketing their hay. The irony is, many of them are waiting for the buyers (dairy farmers) to come to their farms, instead of them going to look for the dairy farmers.

    If you are a hay producer and you are not talking directly to your market, hapo kuna shida.   

    Consider that hay, whether in your store or as mature grass in the farm, is an inventory and like in any other business, inventories are expensive to hold and have associated risks. Your marketing objective should aim to give you the best price and also reduce the amount of time you hold the hay.

    Share with us your thoughts and opinions on hay quality by clicking the comment link.

    Contact the blog author, Anne
    Tel: 0725-520627


    Who Should Do The Visual Tests?

    This is a sequel of the blog post “What Is Quality Hay?“, in which I wrote about characteristics of quality grass that lead to quality hay. This led us to the question of who should do visual tests on grass in the farm.

    In any industry when questions on quality, standards and testing of a service or a product are raised, stakeholders take different positions.  Some will be defensive of the status quo informed partly by the fear that any changes are meant to put them out of business, while those advocating for change might want to bring on board standards which though good sounding, might regrettably not be logistically enforceable.


    Right stage for harvesting Rhodes Grass i.e. at the boot stage and early flowering.

    To discuss hay quality, standards and testing situation in Kenya, dairy sector stakeholders i.e. farmers and saccos, commercial hay producers (CHP), of which this author is one, aid agencies in the dairy sector and the government, need to detach themselves and look at the dairy industry as outsiders rather than people who have deeply vested interests in the sector.

    This way we will be objective, be critical where should be, acknowledge the progress already done in the dairy sector and we will also welcome best practices from other industries that have walked the route of standards and testing and have come out stronger.

    In my opinion the Kenya horticulture and flower industry is a good study case of a sector whose very life line is quality, standards and testing all the way from the out grower level, national level and in the international market.

    For this industry there are three statutory bodies i.e. Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA), Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services and Pest Control (KEPHIS) and Pest Control and Produce Board (PCPB) that are mandated to, among other duties, hold the sector to the prescribed standards.


    Fruit fly in mango

    This is one sector that possibly every year (or season) there is a chemical that is either banned or minimum residual levels are revised downwards; a pest e.g. fruit fly in mangoes, that can lead to total ban on exports; change in grading and packaging or a new tariff which the industry has to conform to.

    Though I don’t have the financial figures, if the presence of greenhouses laid out with drip lines can be used as an indicator, then the horticulture and flower industry has grown in the last 2 decades.  Figure this:  In the late ‘80s, as a student of horticulture in Juja we were bussed to a farm in Naivasha to see commercial greenhouses and drip irrigation.


    Green house built with local materials

    Not because the college wanted to give the students an extended outing (which students never mind),  but Naivasha was the place to go if you wanted to see greenhouses in Kenya.

    The waaahs and oohs that the flip board clutching college students gave, were only silenced by the fact that one had to write a report on the field trip.  Thanks heaven this was pre-selfies age!


    Drip line used as a hinge.

    Move on to 2016, greenhouses are kawaida in just about every hamlet in Kenya.

    How about drip lines? Zinafunga kondoo, kuni (tether the sheep, tie firewood) and for the ever resourceful and recycling Kenyans that we are – the drip line is the hinge for the sagging farm gate.

    The above is a proof that initiatives that aim to raise quality in an industry by introducing standards and testing lead to growth and prosperity of the stakeholders.

    Grant it, some players in the industry will fall off, possibly from failing to read the change in consumers demand or outright wanting to challenge the initiatives.

    Let’s get back to our case:  Who should do visual tests of grass at the farms, so as to get quality hay?

    In my opinion as a CHP, it is the dairy farmers, either individually or through their saccos. This is because if they don’t get to see the grass at the farm and wait until the truck is off-loading the already paid for hay at barn, there is really nothing they can do about quality. They have to accept the hay as it is.

    We are fortunate that we are raising this question in 2016, when the dairy industry is thriving backed by:

    • Knowledgeable and by choice youthful farmers who are willing to disrupt how things are done.
    • Hands-on skills transfer to the small holder dairy farmer, from donor backed agencies which are right in the ground, e.g. Kenya Agriculture Value Enterprises (KAVES) work in Meru & Tharaka-Nithi.
    • Good communication and advance in technology.
    • Structured Saccos & CBOs, (Community Based Organisations).

    Unknown to many dairy farmers and saccos, many hay farm gates would be wide open for your visits.  Reason:

    • For the CHP, he gets a chance to pitch his product based on farm noticeable quality rather than the size of the bale or the grass species.
    • Where farm visits lead to a contract to supply hay, the hay delivery chain is reduced leading to a reduction on price.

    But be careful that you don’t devalue the farm visit by just discussing the price with the rider; hay ni ya kushikilia tumbo, huko kuingine nitanjipanga na concentrates! (Hay is for filling the stomach, as for the rest – I will sort it out with concentrates).

    Hallo, your shilling should be buying you value.  Also consider that transport costs will be the same, whether you buy low or high quality hay.

    What if dairy farmers and saccos wringed their hands in frustration and argued that they want the same treatment as the horticulture industry and be allocated statutory bodies for quality control, standards and testings of hay?

    In my opinion, this could work, but because it would involve regulatory legislation with its accompanying bureaucracy, it would take a long time before benefits can be actualized.

    Dairy does not have the luxury of time because small scale farmers need to improve their earnings with the urgency of now, if keeping dairy cows is going to continue being relevant to them.

    Besides, the fact that the problem of quality hay is shared by the farmers in Eldoret and Endarasha, Githunguri and Gilgil, Nkubu and Nairobi, Maragwa and Machakos, as well as in all parts of the country, it gives dairy farmers a numerical advantage which they can use to push for the hay standards that they want.

    In conclusion, knowing that people and governments like to be associated with success, should the dairy farmers kick start with earnest a My Hay My Choice type-campaign, with strong emphasis on quality and standards, they might be pleasantly surprised by the support and goodwill they will get.

    Who knows, this goodwill may help to break bureaucracy and to cut down the time needed for legislation of regulatory frame work for hay standard.

    Share with us your thoughts and opinions by clicking the comment link.

    Contact the blog author, Anne
    Tel: 0725-520627


    What is Quality Hay?

    bales-of-hayIn the introduction, I wrote that I’ve been talking “hay” to farmers and the posts in this blog will be informed by the topics, which I have found to be of interest to the farmers.

    While price and weight of hay bales is a big concern to many farmers, in my opinion hay quality is one issue that farmers feel helpless about.

    Let me start with a caveat:  There are  many types of grasses that are used for hay production, but in Kenya, Rhodes Grass is synonymous with hay.  So in this blog I will be writing about Rhodes Grass but this does not mean that it is the only grass species that is baled, there are others e.g. Star Grass, Timothy Grass, Red Oat Grass and they are not necessary of inferior quality when they are well managed and harvested at the right stage.

    What is quality hay? It is the ability of a dried grass (or a mixture of grasses), a legume or cereal plant to meet the nutritional needs of a particular animal and achieve the desired response.  Genetics contribute 20% and nutrition & management contribute 80% to the desired response.

    Desired milk yield

    With dairy cows, the most measurable way of evaluating the desired response is milk production.  With beef cattle, the measurable way of evaluating desired effect is the weight gain rate.

    Quality hay should provide proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and essential fiber.

    Besides meeting the nutritional mark, quality hay should be palatable, digestible, have no foul smell and with no foreign ingestable matter.   (Look out for a post on this.)

    Dairy farmers prefer Rhodes Grass because of its potential nutritive (quality) value, while commercial hay producers prefer it because of its potential production.

    The operative word here is “potential”, and for us to discuss the quality of Rhodes Grass hay, it is important that we think of it as a food crop like wheat, maize or beans and not as a grass.

    Maize Crop

    Maize a food crop

    With “it is a food crop” mind set, we will then acknowledge that like all food crops, Rhodes Grass nutritive value and production potential are not fixed but are subject to how the grass is managed, the stage of harvesting, curing and post-harvest care.
    It would therefore be misleading to give a blanket quality assurance and/or price on hay load, just because it is Rhodes Grass.

    Let’s flip the coin – as a dairy farmer what do you look for when buying a cow?  Do you make a purchase based only on the (genetics) breed e.g.  Fresian?  Would you turn down an offer based on health, fertility and temperament of a cow?

    I am yet to meet a farmer who has bought a cow without due diligence – from the outright checking the production records to the undercover tricks of asking the neighbors, workers, the area Vet and the msema kweli, Agrovet owner.  The thought that one could commit to buy a cow over the phone, is just not plausible.

    If you do due diligence when buying your cows, shouldn’t you do the same when buying hay?

    Baled Hay

    True, we bale hay while it is shining, a 2-3 days event – but making quality hay is a process that is spread over the lifespan of the grass, this is when the nutritive value of the hay is set and regretfully not at the baling stage.

    How then can one go about verifying the quality of hay beyond “it is Rhodes Grass”?

    In countries where fodder production is advanced, hay lab testing is more or less standard.


    For this to work the credibility of the testing agency and timeliness of the results are key.

    Clear sampling guidelines should strictly be followed, so as to give results that are accurate of particular hay load or batches of the hay load being purchased.

    Lab testing is a win-win situation since:

    1. The hay producer can differentiate his hay from that of other producers and he can set his price on known variables.
    2. For the purchaser (dairy farmer) you move from the ambiguity of “price per bale” to matching your shillings to nutritional value from analyzed results. 

    In the absence of a lab test, visual tests are the alternative option and when done in an objective way they can be good indicators on the quality of the hay.

    When and where do visual tests start? And who should do visual tests?

    They should start in the farm when the grass is standing e.g. before it is mowed. This is because the important indicators of plant health (quality) are lost upon cutting and more so upon baling.

    Remember we said we should think of Rhodes Grass as a food crop and not as a grass. Then the NINO rule applies:  Nutrients In, Nutrients Out.

    So if soil fertility is maintained by putting fertilizer (organic or inorganic), then the harvested grass (hay) will also be nutrient rich. Equally if the grass is deprived of nutrients, it will retain its genetic form (it’s Rhodes Grass) but it will give hay that is poor in nutrients. Simple.

    How do you tell if the grass will give hay that is rich in nutrients?


    Grass with the right colour

    • Colour: does the grass have a deep green colour – this is the color of healthy, well nourished grass.  If it is all shades of yellow to yellow-green – then there are issues with nutrient content.
      Just the way colour is symptomatic of nutritional deficiencies in humans so it is with plants. Take the yellow hair with kwashiorkor and the relevance of color and nutrient deficiencies become very clear.  By the time grass is cured (dried) and ready for baling, the distinctive colours of the standing grass are wiped out and there is a uniform light green.
    • Leaf blade size: you should look for a blade that is elongated and well opened, the needle-like leaves are a straight give-away – hapa nyasi imekonda.
    Low density grass

    Low plant density. But it will form a marketable bale.

    • Plants density per meter: fine, you don’t have to go on your knees counting the grass straws, but in farms that have low fertility, grass is very scarce. Farms that are regularly replenished with manure / fertilizer have a thick carpet of grass and baling contractors are excited to work in such farms.
    • Height: it is an expression of vitality, vigor of the grass – all influenced by the fertility.  This is one visual test that is completely wiped out by baling.
    Grass contaminated with weeds

    Weeds growing in between Rhodes Grass

    • Weeds: they bulk up the hay with non-nutritive material which reduces palatability (willingness of the animals to eat).  Some weeds e.g. in the Datura and Sodom Apple family are poisonous to livestock animals.

    Who should do the visual tests?  Get to know this in the next post by subscribing to the blog.

    Share with us your thoughts and opinions on hay quality by clicking the comment link.

    Contact the blog author, Anne
    Tel: 0725-520627